Problem solving is an activity consisting of different types of processes and, in this sense, is a means whereby individuals used knowledge acquired previously, declarative or procedural, in order to meet the demands of a new situation. In the educational system, should solve problems where is assigned great importance to the correct solution, however, is necessary to amend such a conception and get educators to accept the notion that the fundamental objective in the teaching of solving problems is to help students develop thinking skills and processes that will enable them to reach correct solutions. Krulik and Rudnick (1982) suggest that the educator must: Create a proper environment for troubleshooting. Offer a repertoire varied problems generating a practice intensive and extensive, besides that they represent a challenge for learners. Teach students to develop strategies to allow them read the problems in the form analytical. Ask the students that they invent their own problems. Allow students to work in pairs or small groups. Promote the use of alternative strategies in students: recognize problem patterns, work in reverse, predict and test, simulate, experience, reduce data, inferring, etc.
Ask questions while students are in the process of discussion of the procedures to resolve problems. Permit students to review their answers. Use strategies that enable the development of thought processes. Do that through a flowchart, students represent their own procedures to resolve problems. In the area of solving various instructional models have been developed: direct instruction, the self-study and guided implementation or directed learning: Direct instruction has been used most frequently to teach themselves a task strategies in particular. It teaches students a sequence specific action and is modeled that sequence within the context of the task.
This type of instruction is structured, step by step, to ensure mastery of the procedure until the student run the task. Connect with other leaders such as Yorkville Advisors here. The help of the teacher gradually fades and practice and revision are used in order to strengthen the acquired strategies. Training on self-instructional strategies involves offering students a set of verbal help designed to remind them of the steps to be followed in the execution of the task. Verbal aid are used as mediators of cognitive operations, is often used in a context of modeling, in order to help students acquire the necessary sequences to achieve the solution of the problem. Directed learning focuses on guided experience. This instructional model attempts to induce students to engage in cognitive processes used by experts. The acquisition of abilities occurs progressively. Basically the steps are:-modeling of the execution of the task by the educator. -Use of procedures of a skilled workmanship. -Feedback from the execution of the students in order to bring them to that level of experience. The teaching of the thought processes involved in the resolution of problems, should offer students more than specific strategies relating to a situation problem in particular, tools that can be used in other situations. The long-term objective must be the achieve a strategic student who: owns a range wide and varied procedures that can be used in any situation. Be flexible in the use of procedures in specific situations. Be involved in overseeing the process of problem solving activities, in order to determine if the activities you are performing allow you to achieve the desired solution.
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